gate17 CN birthday attack

A sender S sends a message

m

m

to receiver R, which is digitally signed by S with its private key. In this scenario, one or more of the following security violations can take place.

(I) S can launch a birthday attack to replace

m

m

with a fraudulent message.

(II) A third party attacker can launch a birthday attack to replace

m

m

with a fraudulent message.

(III) R can launch a birthday attack to replace

m

m

with a fraudulent message.

Which of the following are possible security violations?

(A) (I) and (II) only

(B) (I) only

(C) (II) only

(D) (II) and (III) only

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